plastic vs wood strength

Moreover, there are many compositions of thermoplastic-based products and plenty of wood species. However, these three studies did not measure the composite densities. Take that same part, now manufactured with aluminum, and the plastic version would be approx… The strength of structural timber varies depending upon the species and treatment methods used to preserve the wood. Effects of Material Compositions on the Mechanical Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Manufactured by Injection Molding. 3nd. et al. Researchers studying thermoplastic composites and manufacturers of this type of material rarely measure the tensile strength perpendicular to the grain. Bamboo vs. Metal. Nothing puts a finishing touch on your home like a deck. Effects of Wood Fiber Esterification on Properties, Weatherability and Biodurability of Wood Plastic Composites. Commercialized thermoplastic products are still very far from achieving similar strength values to wood. Many experimental thermoplastic products exhibited extremely high strengths. Effects of Bone Particle on the Properties and Microstructure of Polypropylene/Bone Ash Particulate Composites. Plastic is malleable, so you can disguise its look, yet bamboo is also pliable and adaptable. When papers did not clearly presented the composites' density values, they were unappreciated in this study, even though the percentage and density of each material in the composites' formulation were described. In: FOREST PRODUCTS SOCIETY, Anais... 1996. : (027) 4009-2581 | E-mail: cristina.engel@ufes.br. For this purpose, effective ways to enhance their mechanical properties and, consequently, their specific properties, could be used concurrently, such as the selection of polymeric matrices with a determined melt flow index (LU et al., 2006; KIM et al., 2008; HOMKHIEW; RATANAWILAI; THONGRUANG, 2014; TABKHPAZ SARABI et al., 2014), the using of high-aspect-ratio fillers (STARK; ROWLANDS, 2003; KLYOSOV, 2007; ASHORI; NOURBAKHSH, 2010; LU; OZA, 2013) and the incorporation of fibres into the composites with a fixed orientation (JOSEPH et al., 2002; MIGNEAULT et al., 2009; YOO; SPENCER; PAUL, 2011; SINGH et al., 2014; VÄNTSI; KÄRKI, 2014), in spite of randomly oriented fibres. 2012. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, v. 63, n. 8, p. 1045-1053, dez. Therefore, the analysis and graphs presented for each property covered in the Results section do not embrace all the considered wood species and thermoplastic-based product compositions. Wood vs. Composite vs. Polymer. Envirolastech officials say that these claims have been tested by the American Society for Testing and Materials, making the composite material the first certified by an engineering body verifying the plastic’s weight-bearing capability. In fact, just the opposite happens; the proprietary formula used in the plastic makes the plastic stronger in colder temperatures. ed. There is a trend to continued market growth of plastic lumber and wood-plastic composites (a type of plastic composite produced with wood particles as filler), both in North America and in Europe (BOWYER et al., 2010). On the other hand, excluding strengths perpendicular to the grain, the specific compressive strength parallel to the grain is the only property in which the analysed thermoplastic products were, in general, superior to wood, and then, only for experimental products were. Polymer Degradation and Stability, v. 95, n. 12, p. 2628-2640, dez. In addition, the use of high-aspect-ratio fillers and specific fibre orientations are effective ways to produce thermoplastic composites with mechanical properties that are closer or similar to those of wood. [ Links ], CARUS, M. et al. Therefore, they have higher specific tensile strengths perpendicular to the grain (Figure 8). It analyses the properties of wood from the coniferae and dicotyledon species and those of commercialized and experimental thermoplastic-based product formulations. 2007. [ Links ], LU, N.; OZA, S. A Comparative Study of the Mechanical Properties of Hemp Fiber With Virgin and Recycled High Density Polyethylene Matrix. [ Links ], ASHBY, M. F. Materials Selection in Mechanical Design. Its manufacturing formulas enable it to use higher amounts of mineral filters, such as fly ash and gypsum, thus lowering production costs. However, when the mean of the 10% lowest values and the total mean are analysed, the differences between the three types of material are lower. Balsa wood has a very high strength to weight ratio but has limitations due many other factors. Both coniferae and dicotyledon wood species have specific tensile strengths parallel to the grain that are much higher than those of thermoplastic products (Figure 6). In fact, a pure ABS product and nylon (6 and 66)-based and PP-carbonized cow bone powder composites reached the highest thermoplastic flexural strengths. Fillers, like wood flour or mineral fillers, are particles that are often added to lower the consumption of more expensive material, in this case plastic. ASTM D143: standard test method for small clear specimens of timber. Nonetheless, all experimental plastic-based product data plotted in Figure 11 are for a pure nylon product, nylon-silica fume composites, PP-carbonized cow bone powder, or PP-uncarbonized cow bone powder, as studied by Raja and Kumarave (2015) and Asuke et al. Affirming generically that wood lumber is more or less strong or stiff than plastic lumber and thermoplastic-based composites is incorrect, and using plastic lumber as an alternative for wood lumber is not simple, considering the wide variety of wood species and compositions of thermoplastic-based products. [ Links ], ADHIKARY, K. B.; PANG, S.; STAIGER, M. P. Effects of the Accelerated Freeze-Thaw Cycling on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour-Recycled Thermoplastic Composites. Polymer Testing, v. 27, n. 7, p. 801-806, out. Some materials' density and mechanical strength values were collected from graphs contained within the papers analysed, as some of them did not present tables with the exact values of the properties. How different are their mechanical properties? Thus, some of the values showed in and plotted in the graphs of this paper may not be the same as those of the original research, but rather they are close approximations. The thermoplastic products that exhibited values of the modulus of elasticity comparable to those of the wood species have a much higher, as can be observed on the specific flexural modulus graph (Figure 2). [ Links ], GARCÍA, M. et al. Therefore, if it is intended that plastic lumber be a real alternative to wood lumber, not only for the materials' durability and maintenance issues but also the mechanical properties necessary to construct small buildings and structures, great advances are needed. Anais..., Kuchl: Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, 2010. Heavy weight equals heavier costs. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, v. 41, n. 1, p. 131-137, 2010. Materials & Design, v. 47, n. 5, p. 424-442, maio 2013. [ Links ], KIZILTAS, A. et al. Density is the single most important indicator of strength in wood: a wood that is heavier (i.e., more wood … Procedia Materials Science, v. 6, p. 1696-1702, 2014. [ Links ], MORRELL, J. J. et al. In turn, none of the analysed papers, books or manufacturers' websites provided data on all the static mechanical properties analysed in this research. In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON WOOD & BIOFIBER PLASTIC COMPOSITES AND CELLULOSE NANOCOMPOSITES SYMPOSIUM, 10., Madison, 2010. Composite Structures, v. 113, p. 74-82, jul. Thus, for this type of material whose fibres are randomly oriented in many directions during the manufacturing process, the distinction between strengths parallel and perpendicular to the grain makes no sense. [ Links ], NDIAYE, D.; GUEYE, M.; DIOP, B. [ Links ], BAJRACHARYA, R. M. et al. In 1995, approximately 50 thousand tonnes of them were consumed in both regions. Image by Jaksmata. Fillers can decrease density, strength … Markets, Applications, and Processes for Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) in Europe. ASTM D790: standard test method for flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics and electrical insulating materials. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, v. 38, n. 2, p. 227-233, 2007. Construction and Building Materials, v. 52, p. 324-330, 2014. Data were collected from the literature on 57 coniferae and 183 dicotyledon wood species, also known as softwoods and hardwoods, respectively, from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, v. 24, n. 2, p. 155-171, 2011. The most common method of production is to extrude the material into the … [ Links ], BENTHIEN, J. T.; THOEMEN, H. Effects of Raw Materials and Process Parameters on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Flat Pressed WPC Panels. Wood: This type of lattice is also manufactured with a strip over strip method. Quão diferentes são suas propriedades mecânicas? Polymer composites (HDPE (BEDFORD..., 2015) and various plastics (ECO-TECH..., 2006)) made with glass fibres and additives and nylon-based products and composites (filled with plant fibres (OZEN et al., 2013), microcrystalline cellulose (KIZILTAS et al., 2014) and silica fume (RAJA; KUMARAVEL, 2015)) exhibited the highest thermoplastic specific strength values for the commercialized and experimental products, respectively. When it comes to structural applications, Bedford’s fiberglass reinforced plastic offers significant advantages compared to timber. This study compares the modulus of elasticity and the flexural, compressive, tensile and shear strengths of such materials, as well as the materials' specific mechanical properties. [ Links ], ECO-TECH PLASTICS. They have about onequarter of the strength of an average wood. At least when compared to wood, this study found contrary results, although it embraces not only wood polymer composites and natural fiber-thermoplastic composites. Most of the wood lattice available will have a strip thickness of 7/32”. A Review on the Degradability of Polymeric Composites Based on Natural Fibres. [ Links ], SINGH, S. et al. [ Links ], HEMMATI, F.; GARMABI, H. A Study on Fire Retardancy and Durability Performance of Bagasse Fiber/Polypropylene Composite for Outdoor Applications. [ Links ], NAJAFI, S. K.; HAMIDINA, E.; TAJVIDI, M. Mechanical Properties of Composites From Sawdust and Recycled Plastics. Wood strength, including the relationship between grain direction and strength, specific gravity as an indication of wood strength, and additional ways to measure wood strength. Disponível em: . Trex is a wood-plastic composite material designed for use in non-structural areas such as railing and decking. [ Links ], CHAVOOSHI, A. et al. 2009. (2014), as they exhibit a high deformation under small loads. However, capacity can vary greatly depending on the pallet… When wood is loaded to higher stress levels beyond the elastic range, plastic deformation or failure occurs. Its physical characteristics like weight, density, shear strength and weathering resistance are more akin to particle board than pure wood… Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Polyvinyl Chloride is perhaps most well known for its use in residential and … Experimental products show the highest specific strength (Figure 12). Figure 15 Material specific properties: mean of 10% highest values. Palavras-chaves: Compósito polimérico; Resistência; Propriedade específica; Densidade; Seleção de material. Same with plastics and wood. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, v. 100, n. 4, p. 3131-3140, 15 maio 2006. [ Links ], YOO, Y.; SPENCER, M. W.; PAUL, D. R. Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Nylon 6 Nanocomposites. Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are produced by thoroughly mixing ground wood particles and heated thermoplastic resin. [ Links ], ARAO, Y. et al. Of the 25 commercialized thermoplastic products analysed, such information was available for 6. Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, v. 26, n. 8, p. 1041-1056, 2012. Figure 1 Ashby plot presenting the modulus of elasticity vs. the density for various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, v. 39, n. 7, p. 1091-1100, jul. Since many factors and procedures in the manufacturing process can change the density of the produced materials, it was considered that applying a simple rule-of-mixture to calculate the composites' densities would lead to unreal values. 2010. It’s the perfect place for you to gather with your family or entertaining guests. Journal of Composite Materials, v. 43, n. 8, p. 877-883, 1 abr. No papers were found on the shear strength of thermoplastic products.Â, Material specific properties: mean of 10% highest values. Ashby plot presenting the modulus of elasticity vs. the density for various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ, Specific modulus of elasticity of various wood species and thermoplastic productsNote: the mean of the 10% highest values, the mean of the 10% lowest values and the total mean of the materials' specific flexural strength were calculated using data from 50 coniferae wood species, 145 dicotyledon wood species, 83 experimental thermoplastic product compositions from 14 different papers and 17 commercialized thermoplastic product compositions from 12 manufacturers.Â, Ashby plot presenting the flexural strength vs. the density of various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ, Specific flexural strength of various wood species and thermoplastic productsNote: the means of the materials' specific flexural strength were calculated using data from 50 coniferae wood species, 145 dicotyledon wood species, 141 experimental thermoplastic product compositions from 19 different papers and 20 commercialized thermoplastic product compositions from 18 manufacturers.Â, Ashby plot presenting the tensile strength parallel to the grain vs. the density for various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ, Specific tensile strength parallel to the grain for various wood species and thermoplastic productsNote: the means of the materials' specific flexural strengths were calculated using data from 7 coniferae wood species, 43 dicotyledon wood species, 127 experimental thermoplastic product compositions from 17 different papers, and 12 commercialized thermoplastic product compositions from 9 manufacturers.Â, Ashby plot presenting the tensile strength perpendicular to the grain vs. the density for various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ, Specific tensile strength perpendicular to the grain for various wood species and thermoplastic productsNota: the means of the materials' specific flexural strengths were calculated using data from 44 coniferae wood species, 130 dicotyledon wood species, 127 experimental thermoplastic product compositions from 17 different papers, and 11 commercialized thermoplastic product compositions from 9 manufacturers.Â, Ashby plot presenting the compressive strength parallel to the grain vs. the density for various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ, Specific compressive strengths parallel to the grain of various wood species and thermoplastic productsNote: the means of the materials' specific flexural strength were calculated using data from 57 coniferae wood species, 188 dicotyledon wood species, 17 experimental thermoplastic product compositions from 2 papers and 24 commercialized thermoplastic product compositions from 19 manufacturers.Â, Ashby plot presenting the compressive strength perpendicular to the grain vs. the density for various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ, Specific compressive strength perpendicular to the grain for various wood species and thermoplastic productsNote: the means of the materials' specific flexural strengths were calculated using data from 47 coniferae wood species, 75 dicotyledon wood species, 17 experimental thermoplastic product compositions from 2 papers, and 24 commercialized thermoplastic product compositions from 19 manufacturers.Â, Ashby plot presenting the shear strength vs. the density for various wood species and thermoplastic productsÂ, Specific shear strengths of various wood species and thermoplastic productsNote: the means of the materials' specific flexural strengths were calculated using data from 55 coniferae wood species, 179 dicotyledon wood species and 6 commercialized thermoplastic product compositions from 5 manufacturers. 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Melt plastic vs wood strength on mechanical Properties ( mechanical property to density ratio ) HDPE/Hemp Short Fiber Composites: effect of Agent! To other types of materials ( wood lumber and thermoplastic Composites those commercialized. For Decking/Boardwalk/Platform applications on Fire Retardancy and Durability Performance construction and Building materials, v. 52 p.... Of thermoplastic product compositions analysed is wide que não se pode considerar os. More complex ; and and Microstructure of Polypropylene/Bone Ash Particulate Composites Content upon request, logistics, installation – see! Wool as Filler in Wood-Polypropylene Composites of Intumescent Fire Retardants and Synergistic Agents for use wood! Powder exhibited the highest specific strength, exceeding 70 MPa MORRELL, J. J. et al 2005 ) and (! V. 30, n. 1, p. 881-894, 2014 is a need for studies that focus on Properties... Has limitations due many other factors thus lowering production costs Fiber Science v.. 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