2008). Citrus variegated chlorosis bacterium: Axenic culture, pathogenicity, and serological relationships with other strains of, Hernandez-Martinez, Rufina, de la Cerda, Karla A., Costa, Heather S., et al. 2008). Maps; Pierce's Disease Control Program Maps Areawide Trapping Maps (Coachella, Fresno, Kern, Madera, Temecula, Tulare) Areawide Trapping. To assist in the prediction and minimization of unwanted environmental effects that may be associated with exotic natural enemies released for the control of GWSS, native California sharpshooters have been studied to see if they are vulnerable to attack by parasitoids native to the southeastern USA, northeastern Mexico, and Argentina. The CDFA anticipated that G. deleoni would prove to be a more successful biological control agent than G. tuberculifemur because the host and geographic range of G. deleoni is narrower than G. tuberculifemur (Triapitsyn et al. 1994) and coffee (coffee leaf scorch) (de Lima et al. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Sacramento, CA, USA. Flanders, Stanley E. 1965. This four-year project was funded by Western Region of Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (Western SARE) and began in June 2007. The potential effect of GWSS vectoring X. fastidiosa into native vegetation in California that previously has had no prior association with the bacterium is particularly worrisome as it may lead to new disease epidemics not previously seen. To combat the GWSS infestation in French Polynesia it was decided that the best strategy to use would be classical biological control. Irvin N., Hoddle, M.S. GWSS has shown strong invasive potential having established outside of its home range in California [established ca.1990 (Sorensen and Gill 1996)], French Polynesia [established 1999 (Cheou 2002)], Hawaii [established 2004 (Hoover 2004)], Easter Island [established 2005 (Sandra Ide pers. There was no significant difference in progeny production or survival between alyssum and buckwheat, and while the overall number of progeny was greater in any given food treatment than for water alone, the overall mean progeny did not significantly differ between those food treatments other than water. American Naturalist 99 (909): 489-494. 73–83. Map 1. The Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter is a serious threat to California’s agriculture. GWSS has been established in Southern California since about 1990 and has also successfully invaded French Polynesia, Hawaii and Easter Island. (Eds. 68-92. Gonatocerus ashmeadi is a self-introduced exotic species which has been present in California since 1978 (Huber, 1988). Hoover W. 2004. glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis Arinder K. Arora1,2, Kendra N. Pesko3, Verónica Quintero-Hernández4,5, Lourival D. Possani4, Thomas A. Miller6 and Ravi V. Durvasula7* Abstract Background: Arthropod-borne diseases remain a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality and exact an enormous toll on global agriculture. Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of, Vickerman D.B., Hoddle, M.S., Triapitysn, S.V., Stouthamer, R. 2004. The GWSS-X. G. triguttatus was imported from eastern Texas and released in California in 2001. In: Gurr, G. M., Wratten, S. D., Altieri, M. A. A co-evolved natural enemy may be more efficient in finding and attacking a target pest because it has evolved to exploit it (Messenger and van der Bosch 1971). The parasitoid was released on May 2, 2005 on Tahiti. comm. Reproductive enhancement by adult feeding effects of honeydew in imbibed water on spruce budworm. Consequently, it has been proposed that new association biological control agents which have no evolutionary history with the target pest should be used because the pest will be highly vulnerable to attack by this novel agent. The upper parts of the head and back are stippled with ivory or yellowish spots; the wings are partly transparent with reddish veins. In 2002, primary producers incurred additional economic costs resulting from containment activities such as inspections of export nursery stock and shipments of bulk grapes and citrus from H. vitripennis infested counties (CDFA 2003). Based on results from these quarantine studies, we speculate that: (1) G. deleoni may have difficulties establishing in areas where G. ashmeadi is present, and (2) the potential impact of releasing G. deleoni in California may be negligible unless G. deleoni can occupy and provide substantial benefit a niche in the field not currently occupied by G. ashmeadi. ), Dynamics of Populations: Proceedings of the Advanced Study Institute on Dynamics and Numbers in Populations. It is possible the bacterium has been introduced into these South Pacific Islands by means of the importation of ornamental plants from areas in the Americas where X. fastidiosa is native. The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis, formerly known as H. coagulata) is a large leafhopper insect from the family Cicadellidae, similar to other species of sharpshooter… In this manner, GWSS egg parasitoids help regulate pest population growth and subsequent abundance without the need for insecticides. 2010). Phylogenetic relationships of. This may suggest that female G. fasciatus are less aggressive than G. ashmeadi and G. triguttatus when foraging for host eggs and they avoid conflict with larger parasitoids. Esser, T. West, D. The climate in these areas differs greatly to that of the southeastern USA where H. vitripennis is native (Jones 2003). The glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis, formerly known as H. coagulata) is a large leafhopper insect from the family Cicadellidae, similar to other species of sharpshooter. However, only H. liturata was an ecologically acceptable host when given the opportunity to attack hosts on larger ‘whole plants’. Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a common and widespread egg parasitoid of leafhoppers (Cicadellidae) in North America. 30 days at 24oC; Krugner et al. Ellers, Jacintha, Van Alphen, Jacques J. M., Sevenster, Jan G. 1998. This sharpshooter is often found in coastal or riparian habitats consisting of trees, vines and succulent shrubs. This insect is native to the southeastern United States and was most likely brought into southern California accidentally as … Further studies investigating the effect of food sources on fitness of female G. ashmeadi showed that access to softscale honeydew, honey-water, alyssum, and buckwheat flowers resulted in up to 378% more male progeny, 198% more female progeny, and 273% total progeny than those females provisioned with water only (Irvin and Hoddle 2007). fastidiosa has been shown to colonize the anterior foregut (cibarium and precibarium) of sharpshooters, where it may interact with other naturally-occurring bacterial species. 2000). 2007. 2004). These are areas subject to program regulations because of the presence of the glassy-winged sharpshooter. California Department of Food and Agriculture, 5-7 December 2005, San Diego, CA, pp. Coffee leaf scorch bacterium: Axenic culture, pathogenicity, and comparison with. Parasitism of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Homoptera : Cicadellidae): Functional response and superparasitism by Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae). On the sexuality and sex ratios of hymenopterous populations. It has been suggested by Simberloff and Stiling (1996) that if a natural enemy and pest have not co-evolved, non-target species are likely to be affected at least as much as the target. In no-choice studies, G. tuberculifemur successfully parasitized eggs of two native US non-target sharpshooter species, H. liturata Ball and Oncometopia sp. Hoddle, M. S., Triapitsyn, S. V., 2004. This form of biological control with non-co-evolved natural enemies is called ‘new association’ biological control (Hokkanen and Pimentel 1989). It feeds on the biological control agent ( Jones et al., 2006a ) maps where! In length, the adaptability of introduced biological control Research Laboratory parasitoids used for the classical control... 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